Comparing to traditional printing of fiat money during the time of demand, bitcoin is discovered through the process of mining. Computers (which so ever involved) through out the world are working over the mining of bitcoin and are in continuously in competition with each other till the process of mining completes.

Bitcoins are transacted or transferred from one person to other over a network on regular basis but unless someone keeps a record of all these transactions, no-one would be able to keep track of who had paid what.

The bitcoin network deals with this by collecting all of the transactions made during a particular period into a list, called a block. It’s the miners’ job to confirm those transactions, and write them into a general ledger.

This general ledger  ‘blockchain’ can be used to find out the transactions made between any bitcoin addresses, at any point of time on the block chain network. Whenever a new block of transactions is created, it is added to the blockchain, creating an increasingly lengthy chain of blocks of the transactions that ever took place on the bitcoin network. A constantly updated copy of the block is given to everyone who participates, so that they know what is going on and all of this is held digitally. But a general ledger has to be trusted.

How can we be sure that the blockchain stays intact, and is never tampered with?

This is where the miners come in.

What the miners do ?

when a transaction made a block (keeping the record of it) occured and miners put it through a process. They take the information in the block, and apply a mathematical formula to it, turning it into some unidentified value. That unidentified value is a far shorter, seemingly random sequence of letters and numbers known as a hash. This hash is stored along with the block, at the end of the blockchain at that point in time.

Hashes have some interesting properties. It’s easy to produce a hash from a collection of data like a bitcoin block, but it’s practically impossible to work out what the data was just by looking at the hash. And while it is very easy to produce a hash from a large amount of data, each hash is unique. If you change just one character in a bitcoin block, its hash will change completely.

Miners don’t just use the transactions in a block to generate a hash. Some other pieces of data are used too. One of these pieces of data is the hash of the last block stored in the blockchain. New block is added getting the gene from the previous block and hence if the gene of the parent block is altered or new block is changed the forthcoming additions is hampered and the system does not allow further process and hence everyone would know about the alteration.

Simply we can say each block’s hash is produced using the hash of the block before it, it becomes a digital version of a wax seal. It confirms that this block – and every block after it – is legitimate. If someone checked the block’s authenticity by running the hashing function on it, they’d find that the hash was different from the one already stored along with that block in the blockchain. The block would be instantly spotted as a fake.

Because each block’s hash is used to help produce the hash of the next block in the chain, tampering with a block would also make the subsequent block’s hash wrong too. That would continue all the way down the chain, throwing everything out of whack.

So, that’s how miners ‘seal off’ a block. They all compete with each other to do this, using software written specifically to mine blocks. Every time someone successfully creates a hash, they get a reward of some bitcoins, the blockchain is updated, and everyone on the network hears about it. That’s the incentive to keep mining, and keep the transactions working.

IS IT SO SIMPLE ? answer is no,,,,not at all

 Computers are really good at producing a hash from a collection of data whereas the bitcoin network has to make it taskably difficult, otherwise everyone would be hashing hundreds of transaction blocks each second, and all of the bitcoins would be mined in minutes. The bitcoin protocol deliberately makes it more difficult, by introducing something called ‘proof of work’.

The bitcoin protocol does not allow addition of new hash or block without verification but it demands that adding block’s hash has to look like a certain way; it must have a certain number of zeroes at the start or else. There’s no way of telling what a hash is going to look like before you produce it, and as soon as you include a new piece of data in the mix, the hash will be totally different.

Miners aren’t supposed to change the data they’re using to create a different hash without altering previous one. They do this using another, random piece of data called a ‘nonce’. This is used with the transaction data to create a hash. If the hash doesn’t fit the required format, the nonce is changed, and the whole thing is hashed again. It can take many attempts to find a nonce that works, and all the miners in the network are trying to do it at the same time. That’s how a bitcoin is discovered by a miner.


Block Chain – (Cryptogenerator – point of view bitcoin)

Hello Dear ones

“The blockchain is an incorruptible digital ledger of economic transactions that can be programmed to record not just financial transactions but virtually everything of value.”
Don & Alex Tapscott, authors Blockchain Revolution (2016)

Most of us who are being online quite more than half of their whole day better knew about cryptocurrencies ( as what we call it and other similar coins),  BITCOIN which is a fire brand among those. It is amazing to think on what basis or technique this type of digital currency works and what is the technology under the framework of which it cryptocurrency operates.

The technology supporting cryptocurrency is a blockchain technology Originally devised for the digital currency bitcoin, allowing digital information to be distributed but not copied. In Simple way to describe blockchain in words of bitcoin, we can say “A block is a history of every bitcoin ever made and spent along with unique (without being open to anyone about transaction) identification”. There is no server altogether which control the system or there is no single one who controls it but it works on peer to peer control system i.e the operator (computer personal dealing with it) hosts blockchain data onto his/her own system without containing any scrap of it on the system thereby distributing the data world over online hence is difficult to defraud or shut it down.


A distributed database

Picture a spreadsheet that is duplicated thousands of times across a network of computers. Then imagine that this network is designed to regularly update this spreadsheet and you have a basic understanding of the blockchain.

Information held on a blockchain exists as a shared — and continually reconciled — database. This is a way of using the network that has obvious benefits. The blockchain database isn’t stored in any single location, meaning the records it keeps are truly public and easily verifiable. No centralized version of this information exists for a hacker to corrupt. Hosted by millions of computers simultaneously, its data is accessible to anyone on the internet.

Block chain is a general purpose information store which emphasized on verifiability. The tech community is now finding other potential uses for the technology not only cryptocurrency but this technology can be helpful in all sort of data source involving transactions between multiple entities. For a commoner blockchain is a complicated thing. It is kind of database making and mantaining, a protocol and an ecryption method as well as a ledger in itself. Its distributed design adds complexity to its setup. It is handled by a large community that is verified by public online. One thing is to be kept in mind that a blockchain is not to store a short lived data for short time. Confidential data on this chain is initially be avoided. Once data is put on to the ledger erasing is almost not possible thereby hack or corruption is nullified. But its drawback is that once your old ledger is maintained it cannot be altered it keeps on compiling and adding to be archived against the rare eventuality that you need to retrace a series of events months or years ago.

As the block chain gets popularity, demand grows for ways to store and retrieve historical blockchain records.


SAFE ONLINE FINANCIAL ACTIVITY -Virtual Credit Card – Create Instantly & Use for Online Transactions

We hear, hope you too have heard sometime somewhere about credit card frauds going on day today online workings, and yet  we are sure about our credit cards are fully secure  However, this is really far from the truth,To avoid online frauds and to do safe marketing as well, virtual credit card are good options. Create one of desired amount , go for the payment, clear it and the same got expired within specific time without any chance of misuse.

Real Life Situations where Virtual Credit Card is found useful ?

When you are transacting on a website, where you do not feel very confident about security, but still you have to transact anyways due to some reason.

When any friend of yours ask you for your credit card, where you want to “NO” , but still can’t say NO. You can now create a virtual credit card and give the details to him.

When you do not have a real credit card, but only have a net-banking facility, you can still create virtual credit cards and use them.

You can also use these virtual cards where you just want to try out the service , but by default the website starts charging the card on renewal basis. If you use virtual card, it will anyways get cancelled after one use and there will be no renewal charges later – Here is a real experience


To make online shopping safer and a real world consumer experience, VIRTUAL CREDIT CARD is a good option. A virtual credit card (VCC) is an add-on credit card issued on your primary credit card; only it’s virtual and does not have any plastic existence. You can instantly create it, using your net-banking facility by providing your credit card or debit card details. All relevant details like the card number, the ‘VALID FROM’ date, the expiry date and the CVV number are visible online to you and this virtual credit card enables you to transact online as same as your oringinal credit card with limit of your choice. Also the virtual card does not have any fee associated with it in most of the cases!

your primary card details are never shared with the merchant online, so you never have to be worried about losing your card or having to carry it ‘safely’ in your wallet.

Validity of the virtual card ?

The virtual credit card is valid only for a single use and automatically expires within 24 hours if the virtual credit card is not used, which means that the chances of frauds and misuse of credit card. are significantly lower than a real credit card. Also understand the if you hold a VISA card, then the virtual card which you will get will be VISA one and if it’s Master Card, then it’s going to obviously be a Master card.

Can you create Virtual Credit Cards using a Debit Card?

Not significantly, Some banks offer VCC by using Debit card but not all.

Hope this information is useful in any case.

Best wishes


web firms record keystrokes of users

According to the study from Princeton University, more than 480 websites use technique of session replay to gain an understanding of how customers use websites. 

Study says that Hundreds of web firms are tracking every single keystroke made by visitors. Experts questioned the legality of using such software without user’s consent.”These scripts record your keystrokes, mouse movements, and scrolling behavior, along with the entire contents of the pages you visit, and may be send them to third-party servers.

The stated purpose of this data collection includes gathering insights into how users interact with websites and discovering broken or confusing pages. However the extent of data collected by these services far exceeds user expectations. Text typed into forms is collected before the user submits the form, and precise mouse movements are saved, all without any visual indication to the user. This data can’t reasonably be expected to be kept anonymous.

As per record by researchers in website : jagat  Analysis of seven of the top session replay companies (based on their relative popularity in our measurements ). The services studied are Yandex, FullStory, Hotjar, UserReplay, Smartlook, Clicktale, and SessionCam. They found these services in use on 482 of the Alexa top 50,000 sites.Collection of page content by third-party replay scripts may cause sensitive information such as medical conditions, credit card details and other personal information displayed on a page to leak to the third-party as part of the recording.

This may expose users to identity theft, online scams, and other unwanted behavior. The same is true for the collection of user inputs during checkout and registration processes.

Following are the red lines  :

1. Passwords are included in session recordings.

2. Sensitive user inputs are redacted in a partial and imperfect way.

3. Manual redaction of personally identifying information displayed on a page is a fundamentally insecure model.

4. Recording services may fail to protect user data.

Firms using the software included the UK’s news website the Telegraph, Samsung, Reuters, US retail giant Home Depot and CBS News.Paul Edon, director at security firm Tripwire said: “The first area of concerns here is the legality of recording people’s keystrokes without first informing them of the fact.If this is so reliability of users on to the websites bleaks to the point of negativity.


320 million password revealed – are any of them yours

Hello friends, I am backkkkk

A website developed by an Australian Mr. Troy Hunt (a security expert) and run by him. This site shows whether your email address has been stolen in a hack.

The link to the site is here

or simply (as shown in the pic)


Here 320 million passwords gathered from dozens of world’s biggest data breaches been available. You can visit the site and check whether yours is or not.

If it is so then definitely change your password applying with more security options and if not pwned then lucky enough.

The word pwned is internet slang for owned which means to take advantage of someone. A hacker who has pwned you has stolen your data (mostly date of birth, interests, hobbies some times secrets also)

The site is easy to use : Simply type an old password , (not the current one) then press enter. If you are not pwned that doesn’t mean that you are safe enough,your safety depends on your alertness. It may be the chance that you are not indexed by the site.

You can also download passwords from the database from the site approx. 5.5 gb file. Hunt wrote in his blog that the site can be proved useful to every techsavvy as well as tech user or all sorts.

Ideally password should be at least of 15 characters with all sort of figures,alphabets,(caps and small) symbols/characters etc. so that safety is maintained as priority.

thanks for bearing


Shortcut Virus Removal

Sometimes when we see that our pen drives or memory card affected by shortcut virus then we format it without knowing anything because we feel annoying most of the time seeing the ugly shortcut image just popping during a click. Shortcut virus has mainly two types;
the most common is pen drive/ Flash drive Shortcut virus, second is the File and Folder Shortcut virus.

Shortcut virus is totally Trojan virus. It combine  files in your pen drive and Keep it into one hidden folder. Then, it create a shortcut.exe for pen drive.

Actually You can remove that shortcut virus from your any computer drive or removable drive.

Step-1- At first, go to start menu and then go to ‘run’ option. You can also press Windows key + R.

Step-2- Then type “cmd” into the box and press OK bottom to run command prompt.

Step-3- Then if you did not connect your infected removable drive (Pen drive, SD Card), just connect it to your computer.

Step-4- After attached the infected removable drive just type this following command in Command prompt: attrib -h -r -s /s /d H:\*.*, (Where H is the removable drive) and press Enter.

Step-5- Now you can copy data from your removable drive because the shortcut virus is fixed now.

Step-6 – After saving the data, now format your removable drive completely.

Step-7 – Then, if your removable drive formatted then copy all data back to your removable drive.


This may also be written as under : –

Insert your removable device, and notice the drive letter of your removable device. Like here it is G: and while you open by any process it will come up like this as shown.


And you will not find your data anywhere in these icons. You just need to follow simple steps after this.

  • Now, open command prompt, by typing “cmd” (without quotes) in search bar in start menu.
  • When command prompt pops up, just write your removable device’s drive letter, like here it is G, with a colon, like “g:” (without quotes), and hit ENTER.


It will redirect you to that drive.

  • You just need to remember this command and nothing else in this whole process, which you have to type in command prompt window,
    attrib g:*.* -a -r -s -h /s /d” (without quotes) and hit ENTER, like this:

It will retrieve your data in that drive, when you open your drive it will have a unnamed folder(here, last folder), like this:


And now, when you open this folder, Bam! You have all your data here. Like this:

with some other virus icons, which we will tackle later.

  • Now, you have to write this command to delete that shortcut virus:
    del *.lnk” (again, without quotes) and again hit ENTER, like this:

Now, you will see that shortcut virus has disappeared, like this:

  • Now that the virus is deleted and all your data is retrieved, Select and copy all your data somewhere, like desktop, and don’t select some unknown files, which are virus. and after copying them somewhere, Format your removable device and again put all your data in your device.
 Last but not the least if it feels embarrassing to remove the virus manually it will be quite easy to go through the latest updates of your antivirus and get the drives scan which will automatically remove or repair the unwanted or damaged files respectively.
Hope the article will help to gain whatever I had in my brain about this shortcut virus.

Find if your android phone may be infected with a virus

According to the Annual Security Threat Report by a Antivirus company, mobile ransomware has increased by 450% from Q1 to Q4 in 2016 while mobile banking Trojan has shown an increase of 110%. This reports alarms about the threats available in mobile environment. Report only echo the fact that Android phones are a easy victim of malware and attacks and is continuously growing. The fact is that most of users are not even aware that their device has been hacked and is being used for other nefarious purposes. There are some signs that will help you detect if your phone is actually infected with a virus or malware.

if your device remains hot most of the time for no reason, a virus infection could be the most probable culprit.Mobile phone get overheated while playing games, constant Internet browsing, charging or non-stop calling but if it heated without these then there is suspicion.

Sudden or unexplainable usage of mobile data
When a virus infects your phone, it does not still idle; well, not forever. Android viruses and other mobile malware act based on the commands they receive from their creator (the attacker). For this, they require an active Internet connection. Internet is also needed for the malware to carry out other activities like stealing user data and sending it to the attacker, displaying fake pop-up ads, and so on. For obvious reasons having a malware hiding on your device means your mobile data usage will increase for a reason that is not known to you. So, if this happens, it is a good sign that your mobile device is infected.

Your phone send SMSs or makes  calls by itself that you have no idea about
If no one else is using your phone and you notice unexplainable calls made from your phone (or SMSs sent), then you can suspect a possible virus infection. Most mobile viruses are designed to make calls and send SMSs from the infected device.

Battery drains faster than normal
Viruses constantly keep running in the background without giving away their presence and this eats up the battery.Most Android phones with good battery backup. but if  your device’s battery is drying faster than usual even with normal usage,this can be mobile virus infection.

Poor performance
Mobile phones lose on the performance score with time and if get stuffed with apps over time.But, if you are using all necessary steps to optimize performance and still experiences lags and slowdowns, then a virus infection could be blamed for it after all.

Unfamiliar apps show up on your phone
If you notice apps which you don’t remember installing on your device, then there are high chances of your phone being infected with a virus as most mobile viruses are programmed to install other apps (mostly malicious) on the infected device so that they can work together to mess up your happiness.

What to do?

If you find your Android phone is suffering from one or more of the signs listed above, then install a mobile antivirus app and run a complete virus scan.

Never install apps from third-party app stores. Only trust official sources such as Google Play and App Store.

Do not click on pop-up ads that come up on your device while browsing websites. Clicking them might take you to an infected website or drop a virus on your phone.

Do not click on links or download attachments received from unexpected, unwanted, or unknown emails. Follow this practice even with messages received as an SMS or over WhatsApp.

On your Android phone, ensure the ‘Unknown Sources’ setting is checked out. This will prevent third-party, unofficial apps from getting installed on your phone.